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German - Conjunctive I / Reported Speech / Konjunktiv I / Indirekte Rede / Forms - Grammar - longua.org

 

Reported Speech / Indirekte Rede

 

Use of Conjunctive I in the Reported Speech:

The "Indirekte Rede" / Reported Speech describes what someone says about someone else. The transfer of something that was said.
Therefore Konjunktiv I / Conjunctive I is used in German, sometimes depending on the form of the verb also Konjunktiv II / Conjunctive II or the Conjunctiv II replacement form with the auxiliary "würde".

Formation of the "regular and irregular forms" of the Conjunctiv I

 

How to form the Conjunctive I / Konjunktiv I?
- Use the verb stem an cut the -en.
- Add the personal endings:
-e, -(e)st, -e, -en, -(e)t, -en
e.g. ich gehe, du geh(e)st, er/sie/es gehe, wir gehen, ihr geh(e)t, sie/Sie gehen

Which form is used in the Reported Speech?

 

Compare with the present:
ich gehe, du gehst, er/sie/es geht, wir gehen, ihr geht, sie/Sie gehen
If the forms of the conjunctive I and the present are the same, use the form of the conjunctive II.
e.g. ich ginge, du ging(e)st, er/sie/es ginge, wir gingen, ihr ging(e)t, sie/Sie gingen
Sometimes the forms of the conjunctive II and the Präteritum / preterit are the same, as well.
In this case, you can substitute them by the "würde + infinitive" form.

 

The following paradigm appears:

 

 

personalpronouns

conjunctive I

conjunctive II

"würde"

1st Person Singular

ich

-

ginge

-

2nd Person Singular

du

 

ging(e)st

würdest gehen

3rd Person Singular male

er

gehe

-

-

3rd Person Singular female

sie

gehe

-

-

3rd Person Singular neutral

es

gehe

-

-

1st Person Plural

wir

-

-

würden gehen

2nd Person Plural

ihr

-

ging(e)t

-

3rd Person Plural

sie

-

-

würden gehen

3rd Person formal

Sie

-

-

würden gehen

The Verb "sein" - to be with conjunctive I:

 

The verb "sein" - to be with its form "sei" is the only verb that is used with an own complete paradigm.

 

personalpronoun

verb

-en

1st Person Singular

ich

sei

... -

2nd Person Singular

du

sei

... -(e)st

3rd Person Singular male

er

sei

... -

3rd Person Singular female

sie

sei

... -

3rd Person Singular neutral

es

sei

... -

1st Person Plural

wir

sei

... -en

2nd Person Plural

ihr

sei

... -(e)t

3rd Person Plural

sie

sei

... -en

3rd Person formal

Sie

sei

... -en

 

Examples:

Christian sagt, er habe nichts gewusst.
Sie meinte, sie komme heute später.
Der Polizist erklärt ihnen, sie müssten noch warten. (Konjunktiv II, da die Konjunktiv I-Form "müssen" die Indirekte Rede nicht eindeutig darstellt.)

 

 

 

Irregular verbs:

German - Irregular Verbs: List: a - b

German - Irregular Verbs: List: c - f

German - Irregular Verbs: List: k - m

German - Irregular Verbs: List: n - r

German - Irregular Verbs: List: s - sch

German - Irregular Verbs: List: se - st

German - Irregular Verbs: List: t - v

German - Irregular Verbs: List: w - z

 

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