Present Perfect / Perfekt / 2. Vergangenheit - German Grammar - Deutsche Grammatik

  

Present Perfect / Perfekt / 2. Vergangenheit

How to use the Present Perfect / Perfekt

 

The Present Perfect / Perfekt is a tense of the past and expresses the same period of time as the Past Tense / Präteritum / Imperfekt. The difference is between the Present Perfect / Perfekt and the Past Tense / Präteritum is rather stylistic or regional (Southern German).
The Present Perfect / Perfekt is used a lot in the spoken language and mostly with main verbs.

Verbal forms in the Present Perfect / Perfekt
In German, the Present Perfect / Perfekt is formed different clusters.

The form consists of two parts:


Auxiliary Verb

Past Participle / Partizip II

haben / sein (to have / to be)

ge … t / en – irregular form

 

 

Auxiliary Verb

 

Past Participle / Partizip II

Er

ist

in die Stadt

gegangen.

He

has

to the city

gone.

Er

hat

ein Auto

gekauft.

He

has

a car

bought.

Hereby, there are two different verbs are used:
- Verbs of movement – auxiliary verb: sein - to be
- Verbs of non-movement – auxiliary verb: haben - to have

The Past Participle / Partizip II is mostly formed with a circumfix:
- kommen: ge-komm-en > irregular verb
- kaufen: ge-kauf-t > regular verb
- There are also completely irregular forms with alternating vowels or other possibilities.
Some examples:

 

Auxiliary verb

Past Participle / Partizip II

Auxiliary verb

Past Participle / Partizip II

ich 
du
er/sie/es
wir
ihr
sie/Sie

habe
hast
hat
haben
habt
haben

gemacht
gemacht
gemacht
gemacht
gemacht
gemacht

bin
bist
ist
sind
seid
sind

gekommen
gekommen
gekommen
gekommen
gekommen
gekommen

I
you
he/she/it
we
you
they/you

„to have“

made

„to be“

come

Irregular / strong verbs (starke Verben) form the past participle / Partizip II according to the following tables:

German - Irregular Verbs: List: a - b

German - Irregular Verbs: List: c - f

German - Irregular Verbs: List: k - m

German - Irregular Verbs: List: n - r

German - Irregular Verbs: List: s - sch

German - Irregular Verbs: List: se - st

German - Irregular Verbs: List: t - v

German - Irregular Verbs: List: w - z

In German:

Unregelmäßige Verben: Stammformen: a - b
Unregelmäßige Verben: Stammformen: c - f
Unregelmäßige Verben: Stammformen: k - m
Unregelmäßige Verben: Stammformen: n - r
Unregelmäßige Verben: Stammformen: s - sch
Unregelmäßige Verben: Stammformen: se - st
Unregelmäßige Verben: Stammformen: t - v
Unregelmäßige Verben: Stammformen: w - z

 

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