Types of Cases - Latin Grammar - Lateinische Grammatik

  

Types of Cases

In Latin, there are plenty of special ways how to use the different cases. In the following some of those uses are listed:

 

Accusative

The functions of the accusative are:

- Object
- Adverbial Accusative
- Double Accusative
- Accusativus exclamationis (exclamation)
- Accusative of the Destination
- Accusative of temporal Dimension

 

Examples:

- Object:
Amicum video. - I see the friend.

- Adverbial Accusative:
Plus velle - to want more

- Double Accusative:
Eam amicam video - i see / respect her as a friend.

- Accusativus exclamationis (exclamation)
Me miserum! - Poor me!

- Accusative of the Destination
Romam vado - I go to Rome.

- Accusative of the temporal Dimension
Rex 20 annos regnavit - the King was ruling for 20 years

 

Genitive

The functions of the Genitive are:

- Genitivus explicativus
- Genitive of interest / refert
- Genitivus partitivus
- Genitivus possessivus
- Genitivus pretii
- Genitivus qualitatis
- Genitivus subiectivus:

 

Examples:

- Genitivus subiectivus:
Amor amicae - the love towards my friend

- Genitivus possessivus
Domus amici - the friend’s house

- Genitive of interest / refert

- Genitivus explicativus
Nomen amici - the friend’s name

- Genitivus partitivus
Nemo nostrum - none of ours / us

- Genitivus qualitatis
Oppidum 200 annorum - a 200 year old city

- Genitivus pretii
Pauci mihi res sunt - I have few things

 

 

Ablative

The functions of the ablative are:

- Ablative after certain prepositions
- Ablativus causae (cause)
- Ablativus comparationis (comparation)
- Ablativus instrumentalis (instrument)
- Ablativus mensurae (measure)
- Ablativus modi (kind)
- Ablativus locativus (local)
- Ablativus originis (origin)
- Ablativus pretii (price)
- Ablativus qualitatis (quality)
- Ablativus separativus (separation)
- Ablativus temporis (time)

 

Examples:

- Ablativus comperationis
Felicior Marco - happier than Marcus

- Ablativus mensurae
Multo felicior Marco - much happier than Marcus

- Ablativus separativus:
Privare aliquem vita - to take someone’s life

- Ablative after certain prepositions

- Ablativus originis
Pulchro loco - deriving from a beautiful place

- Ablativus comapationis
Augustus potentior Caesar fuit. - Augustus was more powerful than Cäsar.

- Ablativus modi
Vehementia intrat. - He enters with violence.
Nudis pedibus esse. - to be barefooted

- Ablativus qualitatis
Bona anima - to be a good soul
Magna fama est. - He is of great fame.

- Ablativus instrumentalis
Armis civitatem superant. - They conquer the city with weapons.
Civitas muro circumdare - the city is surrounded by a wall

- Ablativus causae
Lege - according to the aws
Spe - for hope

- Ablativus mensurae
Multo ante - much earlier

- Ablativus locativus
In Italia - from Italy
Domi - at home
Humi - on the ground

- Ablativus pretii
Parvo - cheap

- Ablativus temporis
Nocte - at night / during the night
Die - at daytime

 

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