Basics of Grammar - Word Classes, Tenses, Sentence Structure, Person, Cases, Number - Latin Grammar - Lateinische Grammatik

  

Basics of Grammar

Word Classes

Latin Term

English Meaning

Example

Nomen / Substantivum

Noun / Substantive

man, car

Adiectivum

Adjective

big, beautiful

Numerale

Numeral

one, second

Interiection

Interjection

hey, oh

Adverbum

Adverb

here, there

Verbum

Verb

go, make

Praepositio

Preposition

in, on

Coniunctio

Conjunction / Connector

and, because

Pronomen

Pronoun

I, my

Articulum

Article

the, a

Word Forms

Numerus / Number

Latin Term

English Meaning

Example

Numerus

Number

Singular, Plural

Singular

Singular

man

Plural

Plurall

men

Genus / Gender

Latin Term

English Meaning

Example

Genus / Genera

Gender

male, female, neutral

maskulinum

male

amicus

femininum

female

amica

neutrum

neutral

templum

Casus / Case

Latin Term

English Meaning

Example

Declinatio

Declination of nouns and adjectives

amicus, -i, -o, -um, -e, -o

Casus

Case

Nominativus

Nominativus

Nominative

The man sees her.

Genitivus

Genitive

the car of the man

Dativus

Dative

I give it to the man.

Accusativus

Accusative

I see the man.

Vocativus

Vocative

Marcus, where are you?

Ablativus

Ablative

(of / from Marcus)

 

Person

Term

Example

1st Person Singular

I

2nd Person Singular

you

3rd Person Singular

he, she, it

1st Person Plural

we

2nd Person Plural

you

3rd Person Plural

they

 

Infinitive

Latin Term

English Meaning

Example

Infinitivum

Infinitive / Basic Form

to go

Infinitivum Praesens

Infinitive Present

to go

Infinitivum Perfectum

Infinitive Perfect

to have gone

Infinitivum Passivum

Infinitive Passive

to be made

Infinitivum Perfectum Passivum

Infinitive Perfect Passive

to have been made

 

Mode

Latin Term

English Meaning

Example

Modus

Mode

Indicative

Indikativ

Form of reality

he makes

Konjunktiv

Form of possibility / opportunity

he would make

Imperativ

Form of order

make!

 

Tempus

Latin Term

English Meaning

Example

Tempus / Tempora

Tense

Present tense

Praesens

Present tense

he goes

Praeteritum /
Imperfectum

Past tense

he went

Perfectum

Present perfect

he has gone

Plusquamperfectum

Past perfect

he had gone

Futurum I

Future present

he will go

Futurum II

Future past

he will have gone

 

Genus Verbi

Latin Term

English Meaning

Example

Activum

Active

I beat

Passivum

Passive

I am beaten

 

Parts oft he Sentence

Latin Term

Example

Subject

The man is here.

Predicate

The man is coming now.

Object

Dative Object, ...

Genitive Object

the car of the man

Dative Object

I help the man.

Accusative Object

I know the man.

Adverbial

Local Adverbial

Local Adverbial

He is here.

Temporal Adverbial

He is coming now.

Causal Adverbial

He is coming because of his wife.

Modal Adverbial

He is coming quickly.

Attribute

Genitive Attribute, ...

Adjective Attribute

Green tree

Genitive Attribute

the car of the man

Apposition

Hugo, the king of Poland, is ...

 

Predicative Noun

Latin Term

English Meaning

Example

Predicative Noun

A noun with an auxiliary verb that takes over the function of a “Nominative Object”.

Sarah is a painter.

Sentence Structure (1)

The verb governs (makes) the sentence.

Marcus studiat.

The verb “studiat” needs a subject > Marcus

 

Marcus amicum videt.

The verb “videt” needs a subject > Marcus and an accusative object > amicum

 

Marcus bonum amicum videt.

The noun “amicum” needs an adjective attribute > bonum

 

Marcus amico consilium dat.

The verb “dat” needs a subject > Marcus, a dative object > amico and an accusative object > consilium

 

Marcus ad amicum vadet.

The adverbial “ad amicum” is added to the sentence “Marcus ... vadet.”.

 

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