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Kurdish / Kurdî / کوردی / Kurmandji - Kurdish Grammar

 

Kurdish Language

Kurdish / Kurdî / کوردی

 

Kurdish is the language of Kurdistan and is used by about 35 Million people in different countries:

Kurdistan is separated between: Turkey, Iran, Iraq and Syria
Kurdish is an Indo-European language and belongs to the Iranian lnaguages, it is closely related to other languages such as Persian / Farsi, Dari, Beluchi and Pashtu.


Kurdish can be sub-divided into several dialects:

-Kurmandji
- Sorani
- Zazaki
- Gorani
- Southern Kurdish

During the centuries of its history it has had a lot of contact with other languages such as Aramaic, Arabic, Armenian and Turkish; in its recent past there has also been a certain influence from European languages.

 

Verbs in Kurdish - Overview

A special phenomen of the Kurdish language can be found with the verbs: Kurmandji uses the Ergative - in contrary to most Indo-European languages.
Logical subjects appears when the verb is ergative as objects. The grammatical subject does not equal the logical subject.

A few examples in other languages:

- German: es geschieht mir - it happens to me
- French: ça me plaît - it pleases to me

In Kurmandji, the agens, the acting person, is not in Casus Rectus (Nominative), but in Casus Obliquus (Accusative, Dative, Genitive).

The Ergative is used with transitive verbs.

Example: I saw you.

Obliquus

Rectus

Verb

Min

tu

dîtî.

Me

you

saw.

There is no Ergative with intransitive verbs.

Example: I came.

Rectus

Verb

Ez

hatim.

I

came.

 

Formation of the Tenses


The formation of the tenses in Kurdish / Kurmandji follow the scheme below:

Personal Pronoun

Indicative Present

Indicative Present Continuous Form

Conjunctive Present

Imperative

Future

ew

diçe

diçeye

biçe

biçe!

ewê biçe /
ew dê biçe

he

goes

is going

go

go!

will go

Bildungsschema:

Personal Pronoun

Indicative Present

Indicative Present Continuous Form

Conjunctive Present

Imperative

Future

ew

di- ...

di- ... -e / -ye

bi- ...

bi- ...!

-ê bi- ... /
... dê bi- ...

 

Tenses in Kurdish - Scheme:

çûn / çûyin - to go

Present Indicative

The prefix di- expresses the present.

Kurdish

English

Personal Pronoun

Verb

Personal Pronoun

Verb

ez

diçim

I

go

tu

diçî

you

go

ew

diçe

he / she / it

goes

em

diçin

we

go

hûn

diçin

you

go

ew

diçin

they

go

 

çûn / çûyin - to go

Present Indicative Continuous Form

The prefix di- and the ending -e / -ye express the present continuous.

Kurdish

English

Personal Pronoun

Verb

Personal Pronoun

Verb

ez

diçime

I

am going

tu

diçîye

you

are going

ew

diçeye

he / she / it

is going

em

diçine

we

are going

hûn

diçine

you

are going

ew

diçine

they

are going

 

çûn / çûyin - to go

Present Conjunctive

The prefix di- expresses the conjunctive present.

Kurdish

English

Personal Pronoun

Verb

Personal Pronoun

Verb

ez

biçim

I

go

tu

biçî

you

go

ew

biçe

he / she / it

goes

em

biçin

we

go

hûn

biçin

you

go

ew

biçin

they

go

 

çûn / çûyin - to go

Future

1st possibility - colloquial

-ê / - yê are added to the personal pronoun.

Kurdish

English

Personal Pronoun

Verb

Personal Pronoun

Verb

ezê

biçim

I

will go

tuyê

biçî

you

will go

ewê

biçe

he / she / it

will go

emê

biçin

we

will go

hûnê

biçin

you

will go

ewê

biçin

they

will go

 

2nd possibility - written

The particle dê expresses the future. Dê appears as a single word.

Kurdish

English

Personal Pronoun

Verb

Personal Pronoun

Verb

ez

dê biçim

I

will go

tu

dê biçî

you

will go

ew

dê biçe

he / she / it

will go

em

dê biçin

we

will go

hûn

dê biçin

you

will go

ew

dê biçin

they

will go

 

çûn / çûyin - to go

Imperative

The prefix bi- is used for the formation of the imperative.

Kurdish

English

Biçe!

Go!

Ew biçe!

He / she / it shoud go!

Em biçin!

Let’s go!

(hûn) biçin!

Go!

Ew biçin!

They should go!

 

Some Vocabulary

Kurdish

English

bira, bradar

brother

birin

bring

birû

brow

nav

name

nû, nev

new

stêrk, stêr

star

 

 

Also read (in German): 

 

 

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